Learning multiple experiences useful visual features for active maps localization in crowded environments
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KünyeAbdul Hafez A.H., Arora M., Krishna K.M., & Jawahar C.V. (2015). Learning multiple experiences useful visual features for active maps localization in crowded environments. Advanced Robotics, doi:10.1080/01691864.2015.109033
Crowded urban environments are composed of different types of dynamic and static elements. Learning and classification of features is a major task in solving the localization problem in such environments. This work presents a gradual learning methodology to learn the useful features using multiple experiences. The usefulness of an observed element is evaluated by a scoring mechanism which uses two scores – reliability and distinctiveness. The visual features thus learned are used to partition the visual map into smaller regions. The robot is efficiently localized in such a partitioned environment using two-level localization. The concept of active map (AM) is proposed here, which is a map that represents one partition of the environment in which there is a high probability of the robot existing. High-level localization is used to track the mode of the AMs using discrete Bayes filter. Low-level localization uses a bag-of-words model to retrieve images and accurately localize the robot. The pose of the robot is the one retrieved from the AM that has maximum a posteriori. Experiments have been conducted on a unique highly crowded data-set collected from Indian roads. The results support the proposed method due to speed and localization accuracy.