Potential use of algae for the bioremediation of different types of wastewater and contaminants: Production of bioproducts and biofuel for green circular economy
AuthorAlazaiza, Motasem Y.D.
Bashir, Mohammed J.K.
Abujazar, Mohammed Shadi S.
Abu Amr, Salem S.
Nassani, Dia Eddin
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CitationAlazaiza, M. Y. D., Albahnasawi, A., Ahmad, Z., Bashir, M. J. K., Al-Wahaibi, T., Abujazar, M. S. S., Abu Amr, S. S., Nassani, D. E. (2022). Potential use of algae for the bioremediation of different types of wastewater and contaminants: Production of bioproducts and biofuel for green circular economy. Journal of Environmental Management: Cilt, 324, s. 1-13.
Remediation by algae is a very effective strategy for avoiding the use of costly, environmentally harmful chemicals in wastewater treatment. Recently, industries based on biomass, especially the bioenergy sector, are getting increasing attention due to their environmental acceptability. However, their practical application is still limited due to the growing cost of raw materials such as algal biomass, harvesting and processing limitations. Potential use of algal biomass includes nutrients recovery, heavy metals removal, COD, BOD, coliforms, and other disease-causing pathogens reduction and production of bioenergy and valuable products. However, the production of algal biomass using the variable composition of different wastewater streams as a source of growing medium and the application of treated water for subsequent use in agriculture for irrigation has remained a challenging task. The present review highlights and discusses the potential role of algae in removing beneficial nutrients from different wastewater streams with complex chemical compositions as a biorefinery concept and subsequent use of produced algal biomass for bioenergy and bioactive compounds. Moreover, challenges in producing algal biomass using various wastewater streams and ways to alleviate the stress caused by the toxic and high concentrations of nutrients in the wastewater stream have been discussed in detail. The technology will be economically feasible and publicly accepted by reducing the cost of algal biomass production and reducing the loaded or attached concentration of micropollutants and pathogenic microorganisms. Algal strain improvement, consortium development, biofilm formation, building an advanced cultivation reactor system, biorefinery concept development, and life-cycle assessment are all possible options for attaining a sustainable solution for sustainable biofuel production. Furthermore, producing valuable compounds, including pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and pigment contents generated from algal biomass during biofuel production, could also help reduce the cost of wastewater management by microalgae. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd